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配件的定制开发

< class='newsInfoWrap'>< class='leftInfo'>发表时间:2019-03-30 00:00 < class='line1'> < class='richContent richContent0'>

食品安全的风险交流需要法规支持和规范指导。中华人民共和国食品安全法指出,建立食品安全风险评估制度,对食品、食品添加剂中生物性、化学性和物理性危害进行风险评估(第十三条)。国务院卫生行政部门应当会同国务院有关部门,根据食品安全风险评估的结果、食品安全监督管理信息,对食品安全状况进行综合分析。对综合分析表明可能具有较高程度安全风险的食品,国务院卫生行政部门应当及时提出食品安全风险警示,并予以公布(第十七条)。建立食品安全信息统一公布制度(第八十二条)。制订了由国务院行政部门统一公布的信息范围。《食品安全法》未提及“风险分析”原则,因而不可能提及“风险交流”。《食品安全法实施条例》也未对风险交流做出较全面的解释或说明。目前,风险交流过程缺少法律地位。另外,有时还会把“风险交流”理解为风险管理,或认为是其组成部分,或简单地把风险交流理解为法规宣传或媒体控制。风险交流的行政职责模糊,食品安全管理和参与各方在风险交流中的角色和任务还有待细化 。
  食品安全风险交流过程中还存在一些明显的理解误区,还需加深理解和克服。例如,把风险交流理解为公共教育。风险交流不是公共教育的主要原因在于风险交流的对象不是“学生”,而是消费者;而消费者的构成是十分广泛的。把风险交流理解为公共关系,常常认为GF或资源多的一方的报告一定是正确的。不能简单地告诉消费者或公众某种食品是安全的,这样做的结果并不一定能使消费者放心。因为消费者希望了解决策的全部过程,所以决策的科学性和过程的透明度是提升风险交流效果的基础。
  风险交流的GF投入或实践与消费者的满意度不成比例。关于风险交流的概念始于上世纪70年代,其得到国际公认仅始于上世纪末,其理论体系、研究方法、规范和指南还很不完善,甚至有些领域还属于空白。目前,从业人员还需要专业基础、专门的理论和技能训练,食品企业从业人员还需要有参与的热情和能力。值得一提的是,提高消费者的认知水平和接受能力是1项长期的任务,需要全社会的不懈努力。
  从技术和管理的角度来看,国际上在食品安全风险交流的研究方面,非常重视风险认知与风险感知以及二者之间关系的研究(图4)。从事食品安全研究的专家和消费者对同一食品安全事件的反应有诸多不同或距离,即真空地带。不理解这些不同或不去缩小这种距离,就会影响到风险交流的效果。就专家而言,有一定的知识背景,有自己的(主动型)认知能力,其研究报告或者言论均依据于事实或研究结果;交流的点集中于导致食品安全事件的危害物是什么,导致危害的可能性有多大,还有那些危害的风险不够清楚或未知,即不确定性。而消费者参与风险交流可能是基于自己的感受(被动型)或从媒体得到的信息,其判断风险的大小可能基于重要性,对自己的价值或主观的影响大小。二者之间常常存在较大的距离。研究发现消费行为,包括文化背景,与食品安全事件及反应程度有关联。这些问题还需要食品安全专家、风险交流专家、消费行为学家和管理专家等专业人员的共同努力,逐步缩小这一距离,缩小真空地带。

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